off-peak wind energy to recycle
waste CO2 into transportation fuels.
This could cut CO2 emissions In half by mid-century.
CO2 are the best solution for scalable and sustainable
transport fuels, climate change, energy storage,
grid stability, and economic growth.
There is sufficient potential off-peak wind
energy and point-source CO2 in the U.S. to make
twice as much liquid fuels as we currently consume, while
also meeting our other energy
A Tale of
Two Crises: We
will all too soon face an energy crisis
that could potentially devastate the
world’s economy as global oil demand
exceeds supply. We are also facing the
threat of global warming.
energy crisis could be postponed (at
great cost) by
shale oil, tar
sands, deep ocean oil wells, and
coal-to-liquids, but that will dramatically
worsen the environmental crisis.
There are certain avenues that can be
followed that could help reduce
global warming but would destroy the
global economy (for instance, to immediately
the use of coal power plants).
We present a new direction
for solving both crises
simultaneously. Using off-peak
wind or other renewable energy (off-peak: in the middle
of the night, when the grid doesn’t
need the energy, so it’s available at low cost),
we can efficiently and competitively recycle the
exhausted CO2 from
coal and natural gas power plants into fuels that work with
transportation infrastructure. These competitive fuels will
eventually provide enough supply to lower fuel prices and end
crisis, while eliminating the consumption of fossil oil, tar
sands, shale oil, and coal-to-liquids. This will dramatically
reduce greenhouse gas emissions while improving both the
global economy. When these fuels made from CO2 (using
wind energy) are burned, no new carbon
will be released. These fuels made from CO2 are
will use recycled CO2, water,
wind energy, and some shale gas (as
long as it is cheap) to make liquid
fuels such as gasoline, diesel,
and jet fuel. No Magic. Just good physics,
chemistry and engineering.
Wind Farms will generate the electricity
required to produce hydrogen via electrolysis.
Using off-peak (night time) wind
energy keeps costs down.
2. Electrolysis: electric
current (from wind turbines) is passed through water
(H2O) to break the bonds between hydrogen
This yeilds hydrogen (H2)
and oxygen (O2)
Water Gas Shift (RWGS).
In a RWGS reaction, some Hydrogen (H2) is added to CO2 to
reform CO2 into water (H2O)
and carbon monoxide (CO).
H2 -----> CO +
FTS (RFTS). In RFTS, CO and H2 are
chemically reformed into liquid hydrocarbon fuels including
gasoline and jet fuel.
(In traditional fossil FTS, the CO and H2 are
provided by coal. Unfortunately large amounts of
CO2 are released in that process.)
We don't need coal. We just need CO from
CO2 and H2 from
fuels made from CO2 (gasoline, diesel, ethanol,
and jet fuel) can be transported in trucks and distributed
in our current gas stations and fuel stations.
No experienced chemist has
doubted that it is possible to convert CO2 into
standard fuels (like gasoline diesel, and ethanol), or that
the theoretical limit to the efficiency of doing this is probably
between 75% and 90%. The problem has been that prior proposals
for doing this conversion have had efficiencies of only 25%
to 35%. In other words, the chemical energy in the liquid fuels
produced would be only 30% of the input energy required, and
that input energy would be mostly electrical, which is expensive – except
for six to 10 hours in the middle of the night.
of the eight major technical advances we
have made will
now permit this conversion
to be done at much lower cost at up to 60% efficiency. That’s
high enough efficiency for carbon-neutral fuels made from
easily compete with petroleum,
especially when the input energy is from off-peak wind. These
processes have been simulated in great detail, and are absolutely
sound. Hundreds of distinguished
the materials on this website, and no significant technical
problems have yet been identified.
Our breakthroughs permit
production of carbon-neutral jet fuel, diesel, ethanol, gasoline,
and many chemicals from
waste CO2 and
off-peak (low cost) grid energy that will be competitive
in the open market.
acre of land in the Dakotas, Kansas, or Wyoming will
produce 5 to 20
times as much fuel from wind, water,
and CO2 as an average acre of land
in fertile farming areas devoted to biofuels.
On several other pages (particularly,
Economics and our ACS paper) we present a more competitive
bridging technology known as CARMA that uses shale gas along
with off-peak renewable energy to dramatically reduce capital
costs and improve profitability for the first decade.
about Sustainability. Successful civilizations
have always planned carefully for the
future – not just of their children or grandchildren,
but for their great-great-grandchildren and beyond. Today,
we are “fiddling...,
and arranging chairs on the deck”, while an energy
catastrophe looms that will dwarf the financial meltdown
and Great Recession of 2007-2010 if we don’t begin
taking it seriously. This impending catastrophe is not
just for our children, or
but even for us.
Everyone has heard
a lot about (global) peak
oil, and the DOE has finally accepted
that peak oil is coming decades sooner than they were saying
just a few years ago. The best recent research we have
seen on future oil prices (by the International Monetary Fund,
5/2012) projects real (inflation adjusted) average annual oil
prices to increase at the mean rate of 7%/year going forward
for at least the next decade and probably in subsequent decades.
This would double the real price of oil every decade. Oil prices
would be in uncharted territory by 2014. We suspect the price
of oil will rise even more rapidly.
data (downgraded from two years earlier) indicates
there may be enough natural gas (NG) in the US
if all probable and possible reserves can be utilized (and
this includes all shale gas and coal-bed methane) to meet
our current usage rate for about 60 years. Most shale
gas will be expensive before long. Peak gas could come as soon
as 2030. Well before
peak gas, its price too will
go through the ceiling and force us to adjust our usage
to meet the slowly declining production.
Almost no one has
heard of peak coal or peak
uranium – because
the DOE continues to say we won’t run out for more
than a century. However, the recent research by Prof. David
(Caltech) shows that global coal resources have been greatly
overstated, and others have shown the same is true of economically
recoverable uranium reserves.
It’s true, we have enough
coal in the U.S. to last us 80 years at our current
usage rate (1 Gt/yr). However,
within a few years, China, India, Europe, and Japan will
be importing twice as much coal as they were five years ago.
By 2020, they will
all happily pay 10 times what they were paying in 2002
to keep their lights on. (The exporters will charge that much
because the impending peak gas and peak coal will be undeniable.)
If the importers will pay that much, we won’t pay
much less in the U.S. Global peak coal can be expected
2030, and peak uranium will come before mid century.
Data show we have already passed peak coal consumption
in the U.S.and in Europe.
The price trends of the past two years for oil, natural
gas, coal, and uranium make a compelling case for the
price of energy headed up, even with slow economic
We may take some comfort in
knowing that because
of peak oil, peak
gas, and peak coal, total carbon emissions
over the next five decades will be much less than even the
low-emissions scenarios of the IPCC reports. But this is small
as the latest data (see ClimateProgress.org) clearly
shows rapid acceleration in lost of ice from Greenland over
the past decade. We are on a path that will lead to a 1-foot
in sea level by 2050, and about 4 feet by 2100. As cataclysmic
as that sounds, the impact of oil at $300/bbl on the planet
and its people will be even greater.
We saw in mid-2008 what can
happen when oil demand comes within 2% of oil supply
capacity. Imagine what would happen if oil,
gas, and coal demand were all within 1% of supply capacity!
The world would be in complete
This doomsday scenario is
not necessary, but the current efforts toward sustainability
are not nearly sufficient to avoid it.
Changing the global energy infrastructure will take decades
of major and much wiser commitments.
We’ve taken some hard
looks at the serious limitations of the current efforts
toward sustainable alternatives on
this website, and we have explained why fuels from CO2 offer
hope for a transition toward a sustainable, prosperous
future. These fuels will be over 85% carbon neutral, and they
sustainable. When the last coal power plants are shut
down in 2090, the needed CO2 will come from shale
gas, biofuels refineries, cement factories, steel mills, and
We hope you’ll
begin by spending a few hours studying the
presented on this website. Then let your
Senators and Representatives know that what is currently
sustainability is not nearly enough to avoid
a global energy catastrophe, but Doty Windfuels has
a plan that will work.
The sooner we begin
directing resources toward the development of these
fuels made from CO2, the sooner we can
rest assured that our transportation fuel, agriculture,
civilization, and climate are secure for future