Efficiently Producing Fuels from Waste CO2 and Off-peak Wind or Other Renewable Energy


Recommended References

Click below for references on:

Fischer Tropsch
  • AP Steynberg and ME Dry, eds. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis 152, Fischer-Tropsch Technology, Elsevier, 2004.
  • S Phillips, A Aden, J Jechura, and D Dayton, “Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass”, NREL/TP-510-41168, 2007. Click here.
  • PL Spath and DC Dayton, “Preliminary Screening – Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas”, NREL/TP-510-34929, 2003. Click here.
  • R Zubrin, B Frankie, and T Kito, “Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization Based on the Reverse Water Gas Shift: Experiments and Mission Applications”, AIAA 97-2767, 1997. Click here.
  • M Xiang, D Li, H Qi, W Li, B Zhong, Y Sun, “Mixed alcohols synthesis from CO hydrogenation over K-promoted β-Mo2C catalysts”, Fuel 86, 1298-1303, 2007. Click here.
  • FS Zeman and DW Keith, “Carbon neutral Hydrocarbons”, Phil Trans. R Soc. A, 366, 3901-3918, 2008. Click here.
  • X Li, L Feng, Z Liu, B Zhong, DB Dadyburjor, and DL Kugler, “Higher Alcohols from Synthesis Gas Using Carbon-Supported Doped Molybdenum-Based Catalysts”, Ind. Engr. Chem. Res. 37, 3853-3863, 1998. Click here.
  • AP Steynberg, JW De Boer, HG Nel, WS Ernst, JJ Liebenberg, “Process for Synthesizing Hydrocarbons”, Pending Pat. appl. pub. US 2007/0142481. Click here.
  • K Ibsen, “Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems. Task 9: Mixed Alcohols from Syngas – State of the Technology”, NREL/SR-510-39947, 2006. Click here.
  • GP Huffman, “C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen”, Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science, Univ. Kentucky, 2003. Click here.
  • BR Smith, “XCELPLUS’ Business Plan for Building Coal to Ethanol Plants on the Eastern Seaboard”, 2006.
  • JE Whitlow and C Parrish, “Operation, Modeling and Analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Proc-ess”, 2001 NASA/ASEE summer program, JFK Space Center. Click here.
  • OS Joo, KD Jung and J Yonsoo, “CAMERE Process for methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation”, pp 67-72, Elsevier, 2004.
  • R Zubrin, B Frankie, and T Kito, “Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization Based on the Reverse Water Gas Shift: Experiments and Mission Applications”, AIAA 97-2767, 1997. Click here.



Industrial Organic Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
  • K Weissermel, HJ Arpe, Industrial Organic Chemistry, 4th ed., Wiley, 2003.
  • G Olah and A Molar, Hydrocarbon Chemistry, 2nd ed., Wiley, 2003.
  • CH Bartholomew and RJ Farrauto, Industrial Catalytic Processes, Wiley, 2006.
  • RH Perry, DW Green, JO Maloney, Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1999.
  • TL Brown, HE LeMay, and BE Bursten, Chemistry, the Central Science, 10th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006.


Peak Oil
  • The IEA World Energy Outlook 2008, Matt Simmons, click here.
  • Joe Romm, “The Self-limiting Future of Nuclear Power”, Climate Progress, 2008. Click here
  • Colin J. Campbell, “The Assessment and Importance of Oil Depletion”, Proceedings, First Interna-tional Workshop on Oil Depletion”, ASPO, Uppsala, 2002. Click here.


Non-conventional oil
  • Adam Brandt, “Converting Green River oil shale to liquid fuels with ATP and ICP technologies: energy efficiency and GHG emissions”, Univ. CA, Berkeley, 2007. Click here.
  • OI Ogunsola and IK Bamwo, editors, Ultraclean Transportation Fuels, ACS Symposium Series 959, ACS, Wash, DC, 2007. Click here.
  • Elizabeth Kolbert, “Unconventional Crude”, Annals of Ecology, Nov. 12, 2007.


Electrolysis and Wind Hydrogen
  • J Ivy, “Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production”, NREL/MP-560-36734, 2004, Click here
  • JI Levene, “Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production from Wind”, WindPower 2005, Denver, NREL/CP-560-38210, 2005. Click here.
  • R Bourgeois, “Advanced Alkaline Electrolysis”, DE-FC36-04G014223, GE Global Research Center, 2006. Click here.
  • SPS Badwal, S Giddey, and ET Ciacchi, “Hydrogen and oxygen generation with polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM)-based electrolytic technology”, Ionics 12:7-14, 2006. Click here.
  • JF DeCarolis and DW Keith, “The Costs of Wind’s Variability”, Elsevier, 2005. Click here.
  • JF Decarolis, DW Keith, “The economics of large-scale wind power in a carbon constrained world”, Policy, pp395-410, 2006. Click here.


  • DESIGN II for Windows Tutorial and Samples Version 9.4, 2007, by WinSim Inc., available from, click here.
  • J Underwood, “Design of a CO2 Absorption System (K2CO3 method) in an Ammonia Plant”, click here.
  • JA Hogendoorn, WPM van Swaaij, GF Versteeg, “The absorption of carbon monoxide in COSORB solutions: absorption rate and capacity”, Chem. Engr. J. 59, 243-253, 1995. Click here.
  • FG Kerry, Industrial Gas Handbook – Gas Separation and Purification, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2007. Click here.
  • AK Pabby, SSH Rizvi, and AM Sastre eds., Handbook of Membrane Separations, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2009.
  • M Mahmoudkhani and DW Keith, “Low-energy sodium hydroxide recovery for CO2 capture from air. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies,” in press. Click here.


Advanced Recuperators
  • David G Wilson and Jon Ballou, “Design and Performance of a High-Temperature Regenerator Having Very High Effectiveness...”, paper GT 2006-90096, Turbo-Expo 2006, Barcelona. Click here.
  • JD Lindstrom, “Design and Evaluation of Compact Heat Exchangers for Hybrid Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine Systems”, MS Thesis, Montana State Univ., 2005. Click here.
  • FD Doty, G Hosford, JB Spitzmesser, and JD Jones, "The Micro-Tube Strip Heat Exchanger", Heat Transfer Engr., 12, 3, 31-41, 1991.


  • E Prabhu, “Solar Trough Organic Rankine Electricity System (STORES)”, NREL/SR-550-39433, 2006. Click here


CO2 (Dry) reforming
  • G Olah and A Molar, Hydrocarbon Chemistry, 2nd ed., Wiley, 2003. Click here.
  • SE Park, JS Chang, KW Lee editors, Carbon Dioxide Utilization for Global Sustainability, Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis 153. Click here.
  • DJ Moon JW Ryu et al, “Plasma Enhanced Preparation of Highly Dispersed Ni/Al2O3 Catalyst for CO2 Reforming of Methane”, pp 149-52, Elsevier, 2004.
  • DG Cheng, Q Xia, and CJ Liu, “CO2 Reforming of n-Heptane on a Ni/Al2O3 Catalyst”, pp 137-40, Elsevier, 2004.
  • KJ Puolakka and AOI Krause, “CO2 Reforming of n-Heptane on a Ni/Al2O3 Catalyst”, pp 137-40, Elsevier, 2004.


Thin-film PV


Hydrogen Reality


Recent hydrogen hype
  • MW Kanan and DG Nocera, “In Situ Formation of an Oxygen-Evolving Catalyst in Neutral Water Containing Phosphate and Co2+”, Science, 321, 1072-1075, 14 Sept., 2008. Click here.


Misc Fuels Concepts
  • D Mignard and C Pritchard, ”Processes for the Synthesis of Liquid Fuels from CO2 and Marine Energy”, Trans IChemE, A, Chem E R & Des., 84(A9): 828-836, 2006. Click here.
  • M Brusstar, M Stuhldreher, D Swain, and W Pidgeon, “”High Efficiency and Low Emissions from a Port-Injected Engine with Neat Alcohol Fuels”, US EPA, 2002-01-2743.
  • Joe Romm, “The Self-limiting Future of Nuclear Power”, Climate Progress, 2008, click here.
  • JF Martin and WL Kubic, “Green Freedom, A concept for Producing Carbon-Neutral Synthetic Fuels and Chemicals”, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2007.


Thermodynamic cycles
  • H Price and V Hassani, “Modular Trough Power Plant Cycle and Systems Analysis” NREL/TP-550-31240, 2002. Click here.
  • R DiPippo, “Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications and Case Studies”, Elsevier Ltd, Oxford U.K., 2005. Click here.
  • AF Massardo, CF McDonald, T Korakianitis, “Microturbine/Fuel-Cell ... for High-Efficiency Electrical-Power”, ASME J. Engr. for Gas Turbines and Power, Trans. 124, 110-116, 2002. Click here.
  • A Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, W Nowak “Comparative analysis of natural and synthetic refrigerants in application to low temperature Clausius-Rankine cycle”, Energy, 32, 344-352, 2007. Click here.
  • M Kanoglu, “Exergy analysis of a dual-level binary geothermal power plant”, Geothermics, 31, 709-725, 2002. Click here.
  • CG Martin and PF Swenson, “Method of Converting Low-grade Heat Energy to Useful Mechanical Power”, US Pat 3,950,949, 1976. Click here.


  • GP Robertson VH Dale et al, “Sustainable Biofuels Redux”, Science, 322, 49-50, Oct 3, 2008. Click here.
  • J Fargione, J Hill, D Tilman, S Polasky, P Hawthorne, “Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt”, Science 319, 1235-1238, Mar 21, 2008. Click here.
  • JF Kreider and PS Curtiss, “Comprehensive Evaluation of Impacts from Potential Future Automotive Fuel Replacements”, Proc. Energy Sustainability 2007, ES2007-36234. Click here.
  • SW Running, “Ecosystem Disturbance, Carbon, and Climate”, Science 321, 652-3, 1 Aug, 2008. Click here.
  • T Searchinger et al, “Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change”, Science 319, 1238-1240, Feb 29, 2008. Click here.


Forest products




Global Warming
  • ME Mann et al, “Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia”, PNAS, 105, 13252-13257, 2008. Click here
  • WT Pfeffer, JT Harper, SO Neel, “Kinematic Constraints on Glacier Contributions to 21st-Century Sea-Level Rise”, Science 321, 1340-43, Sept, 2008. Click here.
  • David Keith, “Engineering the Planet”, Climate Change Science and Policy, in press, 2008. Click here
  • James Hansen et al, "The Earth’s Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications", Science, Vol 308, 3 June, 2005, pp 1431-1434. Click here.
  • CF Kutscher, ed., Tackling Climate Changes in the U.S., Am. Solar Energy Society, Jan. 2007. Click here.
  • R Bierbaum et al, “Confronting Climate Change”, UN Signa XI Scientific Expert Group on Climate Change, 2007. Click here.
  • Siegenthaler et al, "Stable Carbon Cycle-Climate relationships during the Late Pleistocene", Science, Vol 310, 25 Nov., 2005, pp 1313-1317. Click here.
  • SA Zimov, EAG Schuur, FS Chapin, "Permafrost and the Global Carbon Budget", Science, Vol. 312, 16 June, 2006, pp 1612-1613. Click here.
  • JA Dowdeswell, “The Greenland Ice Sheet and Global Sea Level Rise”, Science, Vol 311, 17 Feb 2006, pp 963-964. Click here.
  • AV Fedorov et al, "The Pliocene Paradox (Mechanisms for a Permanent El Nino)", Science, Vol. 312, 9 June, 2006, pp 1485-89. Click here.




Small scale Fischer Tropsch
R&D system at WRI



Peak Oil


Doty Advanced Recuperator






Solar PV


Off-Peak Energy Prices


Piles of pine beatle infested dead trees
at a wood pellat plant


Microalgae in photo bioreactor

Copyright © 2008 www.dotyenergy.com - All Rights Reserved.